ISI Web of Knowledge检索规则

大写字母

不区分大小写:可以使用大写、小写或混合大小写。例如:AIDS、Aids 和 aids

布尔逻辑运算符

布尔运算符(AND、OR、NOT 和 SAME)的使用在每个字段中不尽相同。例如,在“主题”字段中,可以使用 AND,但在“出版物名称”字段中却不能使用。

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通配符

在大多数检索式中都可以使用通配符 (* ? $);但是,通配符的使用规则却不尽相同。

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短语检索

若要精确查找短语,请用引号括住短语。例如,检索式 "energy conservation" 将检索包含精确短语 energy conservation 的记录。这仅适用于“主题”和“标题”检索。

如果短语包含停用词,检索式将查找停用词位置为任何单词的短语。例如,"patient undergoing radiation" 将查找 patient undergoing radiation、patient receiving radiation、patient failing radiation 等。

如果输入不带引号的短语,则检索引擎将检索包含您所输入的所有单词的记录。这些单词可能连在一起出现,也可能不连在一起出现。例如,energy conservation 将查找包含精确短语 energy conservation 的记录,还会查找到包含短语 conservation of energy 的记录。

如果输入以连字号、句号或逗号分隔的两个单词,则词语将视为精确短语。例如,检索词 waste-water 将查找包含精确短语 waste-water 或短语 waste water 的记录,而不会查找包含 water waste、waste in drinking water 或 water extracted from waste 的记录。

更多示例

括号

括号用于将合成布尔语句进行分组。例如:

(Antibiotic OR Antiviral) AND (Alga* OR Seaweed)

(Pagets OR Paget’s) AND (cell* AND tumor*)

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撇号

撇号被视为空格,是不可检索字符。请确保检索不带撇号的不同拼写形式。例如,Paget’s OR Pagets 可查找包含 Paget’s 和 Pagets 的记录。

连字号

输入带连字号的词语可以检索用连字号连接的单词和短语。例如,speech-impairment 可查找包含 speech-impairment 和 speech impairment 的记录。

Scientific_Phenology_2010.8.4_Literature

  1. Impacts of climate change on the vegetation of Africa: an adaptive dynamic vegetation modelling approach
    • a new vegetation model, the adaptive dynamic global vegetation model (aDGVM) that was specifically developed for tropical vegetation
    • Savanna
    • CO2 fertilization effect is not saturated at ambient CO2 levels and will strongly increase in response to further increases in CO2 levels
  2. Differences in growth patterns between co-occurring forest and savanna trees affect the forest-savanna boundary
    • compare patterns of leaf phenology, stem radial growth and branch growth of co-occurring savanna and forest trees in the Cerrado region of central Brazil
    • forest-savanna boundary dynamics
    • radial growth rate: the observed by ring width and unit is usrally mm
    • world_savanna_distribution_mapWorld savanna distribution map,据说占陆地表面积20%,有这么多吗? 
    • Radial growth was tightly coupled to monthly rainfall in forest species whereas the growth of savanna species ceased before the end of the wet season.
  3. Response of carbon fluxes to water relations in a savanna ecosystem in South Africa
    • connect carbon fluxes with water relations in savanna ecosystems were studied by using eddy covariance method in a savanna ecosystem at Kruger National Park, South Africa
    • annual drought and rewetting cycle is a major factor influencing the function of savanna ecosystems
  4. The use of pre-dawn leaf water potential and MODIS LAI to explore seasonal trends in the phenology of Australian and southern African woodlands and savannas
    • Predawn leaf water potential
    • In the savanna of northern Australia, the MODIS LAI product had a basal value of 0.96 during the dry season as compared with a mean value of 2.5 for the wet season.
  5. Response of the mean global vegetation distribution to interannual climate variability
    • dynamic global vegetation model driven by gridded climate observations
  6. Temporal and spatial variation of fine roots in a northern Australian Eucalyptus tetrodonta savanna
    • Australian Savanna
    • Eucalyptus tetrodonta5789im1
    • After 98% of cumulative annual rainfall had been received, fine roots began to disappear rapidly
    • The scarcity of fine roots in the upper 1 m of soil early in the dry season suggests that evergreen trees may be able to extract water from below 1 m throughout the dry season.
    • Fine root (< 2 mm in diameter),须根?
    • Neotropical zone800px-Ecozone_Neotropic.svg
  7. Influence of using date-specific values when extracting phenological metrics from 8-day composite NDVI data
    • Results from a typical savanna system in South Africa show that the Savitsky-Golay technique with date-specific NDVI values is the best method.
  8. Leaf green-up in a semi-arid African savanna – separating tree and grass responses to environmental cues
    • Can satellite time series be used to identify tree and grass green-up dates in a semi-arid savanna system, and are there predictable environmental cues for green-up for each life form?
    • Remotely-sensed data from the MODIS sensor were used to provide a five year record of greenness (NDVI) between 2000 and 2005.
    • Linking this data(MODIS NDVI) to daily meteorological and soil moisture data allowed the cues responsible for leaf flush in trees and grasses to be identified and a predictive model of savanna leaf-out was developed.
    • savanna trees have a less variable phenological cycle (within and between years) than grasses
  9. Dynamic global vegetation modelling for prediction of plant functional types and biogenic trace gas fluxes
    • DGVM(Dynamic Global Vegetation Model) includes seasonal phenology algorithms calibrated using historical interannual data sets derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution (AVHRR) satellite ‘greenness’ index.
    • PFT
    • climate change scenario

Learning Note_Origin_2010.8.3_002

  1. Graphing
    • Adding a Data Plot to Existing Graph
      • Double-click on the layer 1 icon in the upper-left hand corner of the graph. The Plot Setup dialog opens.
    • Copy and Apply a Plot Format to Another Plot
      • It is possible to copy and paste formatting from one plot to another, so there is no need to spend time recreating identical customizations such as size and color of symbols and lines.
    • Mark out a segment of plot with different plot style
    • Create an 8 layer multi-panel plot template
      • Note that you can select an entire worksheet by placing your cursor in the blank area in the upper left corner of the worksheet.
  2. Dialogs and Controls
    • Analysis Themes
      • Just like MODIS tool’s parameter file
  3. Fitting
    • Linear Fitting and Outlier Removal
      • An outlier is typically described as a data point or observation in a collection of data points that is "very distant" from the other points and thus could be due to, for example, some fault in the measurement procedure.
      • The linear fit will be repeated with this particular masked point left out. The fit curve in the graph and the pasted parameters will automatically update.
    • Fitting Complex function
      • When fitting with a complex function, we can easily separate the complex function to two functions: one corresponding to its real part and the other corresponding to its imaginary part.
      • dependent variables: 因变量, independent variables:自变量
      • Select Import/ Import Wizard to open Import Wizard dialog. Then choose Clipboard in Data Source group and click Finish to import the data.

Scientific_Phenology_2010.8.3_Literature

  1. Differentiating geological fertility derived vegetation zones in Kruger National Park, South Africa, using Landsat and MODIS imagery
    • Savanna
  2. Warming, Photoperiods, and Tree Phenology
    • the net balance between these antagonistic warming effects on spring phenology
  3. Interdisciplinary approaches: towards new statistical methods for phenological studies
    • temporal dimension
    • recent and newly developing analytic methods in phenology
  4. A simple ecohydrological model captures essentials of seasonal leaf dynamics in semi-arid tropical grasslands
    • water-controlled ecosystems
    • low-dimensional, nonlinear ecohydrological models
    • semi-arid perennial tropical grasslands
    • Northern Territory and Queensland (Australia)
    • 8-year time series (2001-2008) of climatic variables
    • MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
  5. Linking precipitation and C-3-C-4 plant production to resource dynamics in higher-trophic-level consumers
    • Savanna
    • Precipitation pattern
  6. Phenology of five tree species of a tropical dry forest in Yucatan, Mexico: effects of environmental and physiological factors
    • water potential
    • the timing of rainfall as well as the duration of periods without rain may play a more important role in phenology than total annual precipitation.
  7. Vegetation cover degradation assessment in Madagascar savanna based on trend analysis of MODIS NDVI time series
    • Savanna
    • NDVI MODIS time series
  8. Coupling soil water and shoot dynamics in three grass species: A spatial stochastic model on water competition in Neotropical savanna
    • Savanna
    • boundary between tropical rainforest and deserts

Yale Prof. Lee's Scientific Writing Lecture

早上去听了Yale Professor Xuhui Lee关于科技论文写作的讲座,特将要点摘录如下:

Title:Scientific Writing

  • 相比较之下,从Cambridge和Oxford过来的学生写作能力是最强的(肯定嘛!)
  • Publication是整个研究过程中最重要的部分,因为只有通过发表文章,你的成果才能得到学术界的认可。
  • Friedland’s ideas about ideas:research is not about ownership, but about sharing(ideas), don’t let fears of having your ideas taken without credit diminish your relationships with collaborators and colledges.
  • Effective writing skills
    • choose a concise and informative title
    • funnel from a big picture to the specifies of your project
    • unify the voice and central goal; map literature review objectives, and objectives to conclusions.
    • highlight your most important points; do not bury critical information, writing for information not impressing.
    • focus the reader’s attention with road map and topic sentences; avoid information that dilutes your messages.
    • give credit where credit is due.
    • rewrite if conclusion are weak.
    • respond constructively to review comments
    • never plagiarized in any form or shape.
  • 向大的科学/社会问题上靠
  • 几个问题
    • big picture is too big
    • leap to faith
    • intermediate links missing
    • typographic errors
    • cute font/format
    • font and graphic too small
    • too many significant digits
    • crowed figures
    • fancy color combination, symbal change
    • sloppy symbol notations
    • too many symbols and abbreviations
    • sophiscated adjectives
    • figures of speech
  • 几点格式
    • abbreviations in upright roman(IPCC, LAI, NDVI etc.)
    • units in upright roman
    • math symbols in italic
  • Para-graphic are building blocks of technical writing
    • one idea per one paragraph, no more, no less
    • topic sentence
    • conclusions sentences: a hypothesis in disguise, a logical deduction, or an inference.
  • 关于引用Citation
    • cite only papers that you have actually read
    • all citations should be accurate
    • avoid to many reference or references
    • repeated citations to one or two individuals
    • repeated citations to your own work or your mentor’s work
    • inaccurate citations/sloppiness
    • citations to non peer-reviewed literature(“grey literature”)
    • citation to journals in Chinese
    • biased citation to one school of thought
    • few or no citation to people who may review your work
    • proper attributions of credit
    • use of tense: when you state previously published findings, you should use the present tense, your own work use past tense.
  • Weak conclusions
  • how to respond to review comments
    • answer completely
    • answer politely
  • 用自己的语言表达引用的内容,英文文章对抄袭的判定标准非常严格,惩罚也非常苛刻。
  • 两个有用的资源:
    1. Yale Writing Center
    2. Day

一篇Dissertation Proposal阅读笔记

题目:Role of the Hydrologic Cycle in Vegetation Response to Climate Change:An Analysis Using VEMAP Phase 2 Model Experiments

作者:Wendy Gordon,UT at Austin

  • 开篇首先指出,本次研究主要有哪几个目的。
  • 研究的大背景很重要。
  • 清楚的表明自己的研究目的,用1、2、3的方法也行。
  • 研究使用的方法和数据要说清楚。
  • 最后有一个总结,重新说明本次研究的目的以及意义何在。